This chemical acts as a stimulant and diuretic (increases urine flow). It is found naturally in coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans (chocolate) and kola nuts (cola) and added to soft drinks, foods, and medicines.


This is the most important mineral for building bone density, preventing bone loss and treating osteoporosis. Calcium also regulates your heartbeat, helps with blood clotting and makes your muscles contract. Milk products, fortified soy beverages, dark leafy green vegetables, and almonds are all sources of calcium.


One of the three macronutrients, along with protein and fat, that supplies energy (calories) to the body. There are three categories of carbohydrates: sugars, starch and fiber.

Carbohydrate counting

Carbohydrate counting is when you keep track of how much carbohydrate you eat. This is a flexible way to manage your meal plan and your food intake. You can work with a Registered Dietitian to decide how much carbohydrate you need each day. Then, keep track of the type and amount of foods you eat. Each food is given a number based on how much carbohydrate is found in a standard serving size. You add up the numbers so you can eat the correct amount of carbohydrates for your personal meal plan.

Cardiovascular disease (Heart Disease)

A disease of the heart or blood vessels. Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease, but other forms include angina (chest pain), arrhythmias (irregular heart beat) and atherosclerosis (blocked arteries).


are a family of pigmented compounds found in plants. Six that are prevalent in North American diets include beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin.


The flexible, tough tissue that covers the ends of your bones at your joints. Cartilage allows bones to glide over each other smoothly. It also prevents bones from rubbing against each other.


A cataract is when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and hard, which can impair your sight. A cataract makes everything look cloudy.

Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE)

A Certified Diabetes Educator is a health professional that focuses on diabetes care. Some nurses and dietitians choose to become CDEs. They need to have a minimum of 800 hours of practice in diabetes education. CDEs work at Diabetes Education Centres and can help you learn more about managing your diabetes.

Chiropodist and Podiatrist

Health care professionals who specialize in the study, treatment and care of the feet.


This is the most common type of steroid in the body and is made by the liver. It is present in every cell in the body and in many foods. Some cholesterol in the blood is necessary, but a high level of cholesterol in the blood can lead to health problems.


A part of the large intestine involved in digestion.

Complementary Feeding

is defined as the process starting when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast milk. The target age range for complementary feeding is generally taken to be 6 to 24 months of age, even though breastfeeding may continue beyond two years

Complete protein

A complete protein contains all nine essential amino acids. Complete proteins are found in animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, yogurt and cheese. Soybeans are the only plant protein considered to be a complete protein. Other beans, peas, nuts, seeds and grains are “incomplete proteins” because they are missing one or more of the essential amino acids.


Is the passage of small amounts of hard, dry bowel movements, usually fewer than three times a week.

Conventional foods

Conventional foods are non-organic foods that may be grown with or without the use of pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics and/or growth hormones


Is the transfer of harmful substances from one food to another during storage or preparation that may cause illness. To avoid this, keep raw foods such as meat, poultry and seafood and their juices separate from other raw or cooked foods; and wash your hands, food preparation surfaces and utensils properly while working with food.