(Also called glycosylated haemoglobin). A test that measures your average blood glucose levels to show how well levels are being managed over a long-term period. People with diabetes should have their A1C measured once every three months.

Acceptable Daily Intake

Acceptable daily intake (ADI) is a measure of the amount of a food additive that is safe to consume on a daily basis over a lifetime without health risks. ADIs are usually expressed in milligrams per kilograms of body weight per day.

Acid reflux

A common condition in which acid in the stomach rises up into the esophagus.


An originally Chinese practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points to cure disease or relieve pain.

Added salt

Refers to salt added during cooking or after preparation "at the table"

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

This is the most common cause of vision loss in Canada. AMD causes blurry central vision and the loss of fine detail.


A substance with a pH greater than 7. It is also known as “base” or “basic” and is the opposite of acid.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. This disease causes memory loss and difficulty with thinking, as well as changes in mood, behaviour, one’s ability to communicate, and day-to-day routine activities.

Amino acid

These are the building blocks used to make proteins. Different combinations of amino acids make up different types of proteins. Protein is a nutrient found in food, and also helps to form the muscles in our body.


A severe food allergy reaction that can be life-threatening. The most common foods that may trigger anaphylaxis are peanuts, tree nuts, seafood, egg, and milk products. Other common triggers are insect stings, medicine, latex or exercise.


This is a condition in which a person has less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. This causes your body to have more difficulty carrying oxygen in the blood.

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder identified by an "obsession" for thinness. Characteristic features include drastic weight loss resulting from dieting and/or intense exercise, poor body image, a drive for thinness and fear of weight gain


An over-the counter medicine that helps reduce stomach acid and coat the stomach. Often used for relief of heartburn pain.


A substance used to treat infections from bacteria in humans and animals.


is a substance that stops blood from clotting.


Food or medications that may reduce inflammation or swelling that can cause certain chronic diseases, including heart disease.


Nutrients that prevent or slow the breakdown of another substance by oxygen. Beta-carotene (a vitamin A precursor), vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium have been found to act as antioxidants.


Arteries are blood vessels that move blood away from the heart. Arteries brings blood to the body’s organs. Arteries can become clogged and brittle when there is plaque build up. This limits the body’s ability to move blood to where it is needed and increases the risk of heart disease.


Autism or “Autism Spectrum Disorder” is a group of disorders that affect the brain. People with autism often have trouble communicating and interacting with people. They may behave differently than other people and are often less interested in food or have uncommon food preferences. They may be less interested in various activities and have trouble with motor skills like picking up small objects, catching a ball and riding a bike. There is no known cure for autism. Treatment includes helping individuals cope with their symptoms through education and skill development based on their needs.

Autoimmune disease/disorder

A condition that results when the body attacks and destroys its own healthy cells and tissues. Some examples of autoimmune disorders are type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus and celiac disease.