a small, pear-shaped organ located below the liver. It stores a liquid called bile, which helps digest fats.


small, pebble-like substances that develop in the gallbladder. Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder (bile) hardens into pieces of stone-like material.

Gastrointestinal tract

The organs that support eating food. This includes our mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

A genetically modified organism is an organism that has had its genes (DNA) altered to act in a way that does not happen naturally and/or contains genes from another organism.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is when diabetes begins during pregnancy. It starts when your body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. It usually goes away after the baby is born. It affects about 2 to 4% of pregnant women.


This eye disease is caused by increased pressure within the eye. If you have glaucoma, you lose the ability to see out of the side of your eye (peripheral vision).


A glucometer is also called a blood glucose meter. This tool allows you to test your blood glucose levels by yourself at home. You can buy one at your local pharmacy. It is helpful for monitoring your blood glucose levels daily.


A type of sugar that is the body’s main source of energy.

Glycemic Index

The Glycemic Index is a scale that ranks carbohydrate-rich foods by how much they raise blood glucose levels compared to glucose or white bread. Foods that raise your blood glucose level quickly have a higher GI rating than foods that raise your blood glucose level more slowly. In general, the lower the rating, the better the quality of carbohydrate.


A condition in which abnormally high levels of uric acid occur in the blood which can cause recurring attacks of joint inflammation (arthritis), deposits of hard lumps of uric acid in and around the joints, and decreased kidney function and kidney stones.

Growth hormones

Can be naturally occurring or synthetic (man-made). These hormones promote increased growth of lean tissue in animals. In Canada, they are approved for use in beef cattle only.